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Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin
List of publications of Fritz Eckstein


B. Helferich, F. Eckstein: Glycosidsynthesen aus 1-Mesitoyl-aldosen. Chem. Ber. 93, 2467 (1960)


B. Helferich, W. Piehl, F. Eckstein: Zur Synthese von Glucosiden aus 1-Acyl-b-D-glucose-Derivaten. Chem. Ber. 94, 491 (1961)


E. Baer, F. Eckstein: Phosphatidylthreonines. J. Biol. Chem. 237, 1449 (1962)


F. Eckstein, F. Cramer: Notiz über 2',3'-O-Äthoxymethylen-Derivate von Ribonucleosiden. Chem. Ber. 98, 995 (1965)


F. Eckstein: 2,4-Dinitrosulfenyl-Nucleosides. Tetrahedron Letters 1965, 531


F. Eckstein: b,b,b-Trichloralkohol als Phosphorsäure-Schutzgruppe für Nucleotide.
a) Angew. Chem. 77, 912 (1965); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 4, 876 (1965);
b) Chem. Ber. 100, 2228 (1967)


F. Eckstein: Oligodesoxynucleotide mit endständiger 5'-Phosphatgruppe.
a) Angew. Chem. 78, 682 (1966); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 5, 671 (1966);
b) Chem. Ber. 100, 2236 (1967)


F. Eckstein: Nucleoside Phosphorothioates. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 88, 4292 (1966)


F. Eckstein : A Dinucleoside Phosphorothioate. Tetrahedron Letters 1967, 1157


F. Eckstein, K.-H. Scheit: Synthese von Nucleosidphosphaten mit Phosphorsäure-bis-(b,b,b-tri­chloräthylester-chlorid. Angew. Chem. 79, 317 (1967); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 6, 362 (1967)


F. Eckstein: Diuridin-3',5'-thiophosphat. Tetrahedron Letters 1967, 3495


F. Eckstein, I. Rizk: Synthese von Oligonucleotiden über Phosphorsäuretriester Angew. Chem. 79, 684 (1967); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 6, 695 (1967)


F. Eckstein, H. Gindl: Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-Polyphosphorothioates. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 149, 35 (1967)


F. Eckstein, H. Sternbach: Nucleoside 5'-O-Phosphorothioates as Inhibitors for Phosphatases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 146, 618 (1967)


F. Eckstein, I. Rizk: Oligonucleotidsynthesen mit Phosphorsäure-(b,b,b-trichlor­äthylester)-dichlorid Angew. Chem. 79, 939 (1967); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 6, 649 (1967)


F. Eckstein, H. Gindl: Uridine 2',3'-O,O-Cyclothiophosphates. Chem. Ber. 101, 1670 (1968)


H. Matzura, F. Eckstein: A Polyribonucleotide Containing Alternating P=O and P=S Linkage. Eur. J. Biochem. 3, 448 (1968)


A. Franke, F. Eckstein, K.H. Scheit, F. Cramer: Synthese von Oligodesoxynucleotiden mit der Tri­chloräthyl­schutzgruppe. Chem. Ber. 101, 2998 (1968)


A. Franke, K.H. Scheit, F. Eckstein: Selektive Phosphorylierung von Nucleosiden Chem. Ber. 101, 2998 (1968)


V. Lisy, F. Eckstein, J. Skoda: The Reduced Ability of Guanyldiuridine Phosphorothioate to Sti­mulate Binding of Valyl-tRNA to Ribosomes. Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 33, 2734 (1968)


F. Eckstein, I. Rizk: Synthese von Oligodesoxy­nucleotiden über Phosphorsäure­triester. Chem. Ber. 102, 2362 (1969)


F. Eckstein: Uridine-2',3'-O,O-cyclophosphorothioate as Substrate for Pancreatic Ribonuclease (I). FEBS Letters 2, 85 (1968)


F. Eckstein, H. Gind: Polyribonucleotides Containing a Thiophosphate Backbone. FEBS Letters 2, 262 (1969); Eur. J. Biochem. 13, 558 (1970)


J.C. Maurizot, J. Brahms, F. Eckstein: Forces Involved in the Conformational Stability of Nucleic Acids. Nature 222, 559 (1969)


W. Saenger, F. Eckstein: Kristallstruktur von Uridin-2',3'-O,O-cyclothiophosphat. Angew. Chem. 81, 566 (1969); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 8, 515 (1969); J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 4712 (1970)


E. DeClercq, F. Eckstein, T.C. Merigan: Interferon Induction Increased through Chemical Modifi­cation of a Synthetic Polyribonucleotide. Science 165, 1137 (1969)


F. Eckstein, H.P. Baer: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Adenosine 3',5'-Cyclic Phosphorothioate. Bio­chim. Biophys. Acta 191, 316 (1969)


E. DeClercq, F. Eckstein, H. Sternbach, T.C. Merigan: Interferon Induction by and Ribonuclease Sensitivity of Thiophosphate Substituted Polyribonucleotides. Antimicrobiol. Agents and Chemotherapy 1969, 187


E. DeClercq, F. Eckstein, T.C. Merigan: Structural Requirements for Synthetic Polyanions to Act as Interferon Inducers. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 173, 444 (1970)


F. Eckstein: Nucleosides Phosphorothioates. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 92, 4718 (1970)


H. Sternbach, F. Eckstein: Unprimed Synthesis of Polymers with RNA-Polymerase. FEBS Letters 8, 205 (1970)


E. Schlimme, F. von der Haar, F. Eckstein, F. Cramer: Synthesis and Properties of tRNAPhe-C-C-A and the Effect of Adenosine 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate) on the Activation of Phenylalanine. Eur. J. Biochem. 14, 351 (1970)


E. DeClercq, F. Eckstein, H. Sternbach, T.C. Meri­gan: Antiviral Activity of Thiophosphate-Substituted Polyribo­nucleotides in vitro and in vivo. Virology 42, 421 (1970)


D. Usher, D.I. Richardson jun., F. Eckstein: Absolute Stereochemistry of the Second Step of Ribonuclease Action. Nature 228, 663 (1970)


R.S. Goody, F. Eckstein: Thiophosphate Analogs of Nucleoside Di- and Triphosphates. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93, 6252 (1971)


J. Hobbs, H. Sternbach, F. Eckstein: Poly 2'-Deoxy-2'-chlorouridylic and -cytidylic Acids. FEBS Letters 15, 345 (1971)


F. Eckstein, K.H. Scheit: Modified Polynucleotides. In: Procedures in Nucleic Acid Res. 2, G.L. Cantoni, D.R. Davies (Eds.), Harper & Row, New York 1971, p. 665


F. Eckstein, M. Kettler, A. Parmeggiani: Guanylylimidodiphosphate and its Interaction with Amino Acid Polymerization Factors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 45, 1151 (1971)


D.A. Usher, E.S. Erenrich, F. Eckstein: Geometry of the First Step in the Action of Ribonuclease A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 115 (1972)


F. Eckstein, W. Saenger, D. Suck: Stereocemistry of the Transesterification Step of Pancreatic Ribonuclease. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46, 964 (1972)


J. Hobbs, H. Sternbach, F. Eckstein: Poly 2'-Deoxy-2'-amino­uridylic Acid. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46, 1509 (1972)


R.S. Goody, F. Eckstein, R.H. Schirmer: Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiophosphate Analogs of Nucleo­tides Biochim. Biophys. Acta 276, 155 (1972)


O. Berglund, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of ATP- and dATP-Substituted Sepharoses and Their Application in the Purification of Phage T4-Specific Ribo­nucleotide Reductase. Eur. J. Biochem 28, 492 (1972); Methods in Enzymology 34, 253 (1974)


D.R. Black, F. Eckstein, J.B. Hobbs, H. Sternbach, T.C. Merigan: Antiviral Activity of Certain Thiophosphate and 2'-Chloro-Substituted Polynucletide Homopolymer Duplexes. Virology 48, 537 (1972)


J. Hobbs, H. Sternbach, M. Sprinzl, F. Eckstein: Polynucleotides Containing 2'-Chloro-2'-deoxyribose. Biochemistry 11, 4336 (1972)


F. Eckstein, H.H. Schulz, H. Rüterjans, W. Haar, W. Maurer: Stereochemistry of the Transesteri­fication Step of T1-Ribo­nuclease. Biochemistry 11, 3507 (1972)


J. Barrington-Leigh, K.C. Holmes, H.G. Mannherz, G. Rosen­baum, F. Eckstein, R.S. Goody: The Effects of ATP-Analogues on Low Angle X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Insect Flight Muscle. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium 38, 443 (1972)


H.J. Mannherz, R.S. Goody, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of Myosin ATPase with a Disulfide Analog of ATP. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium 38, 119 (1972)


D.R. Black, T.C. Merigan, E. DeClercq, F. Eckstein: Relationship Between Toxicity and Antiviral Activity of Various Plynucleotides. Antimicrobiol. Agents and Chemotherapy 3, 198 (1973)


A. Frischauf, F. Eckstein: Purification of Snake Venom Phosphorodiesterase by Affinity Chromatography. Eur. J. Biochem. 32, 479 (1973); Methods in Enzymology 34, 605 (1974)


E. Schlimme, W. Lamprecht, F. Eckstein, R.S. Goody: Thiophosphate Analogues and 1-N-Oxides of ATP and ADP in Mito­chondrial Translocation and Phosphoryl-Transfer Reactions. Eur. J. Biochem. 40, 485 (1973)


J. Hobbs, H. Sternbach, M. Sprinzl, F. Eckstein: Polynucleotides Containing 2'-Amino- and 2'-Azido-2'-deoxy­ribose. Biochemistry 12, 5138 (1973)


U. von Döbeln, F. Eckstein: Ribonucleoside 5'-Thiodiphosphates as Substrates for E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase. Eur. J. Biochem. 43, 215 (1974)


C.R. Bagshaw, J.F. Eccleston, F. Eckstein, R.S. Goody, H. Gutfreund, D.R. Trentham: The Mg2+ Adenosine Triphosphatase of Myosin: Two-Step Processes of ATP Association and ADP Dissociation. Biochem. J. 141, 351 (1974)


W. Saenger, D. Suck, F. Eckstein: On the Mechanism of Ribonuclease A: Crystal and Molecular Structure of Uridine 3'-Thiophosphate Methylester Triethyl­ammonium Salt. Eur. J. Biochem. 46, 559 (1974)


K.W. Stahl. E. Schlimme, F. Eckstein: Yeast Hexo­kinase Reaction with Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate and Adenosine 5'-O-(1-Thiotriphosphate) Monitored by Liquid Chromatography. FEBS Letters 40, 241 (1974)


H.P. Baer, L.P. Simonson, F. Eckstein: Interaction of Sulfur-Containing Analogs of ATP with Adenylate Cyclase. FEBS Letters 41, 199 (1974)


F. Eckstein, L.P. Simonson, H.P. Baer: Adenosine 3',5'-Cyclic Phosphorothioate, Synthesis and Biological Properties. Biochemistry 13, 3806 (1974)


F. Eckstein, R.S. Goody: Thioanalogues of Phosphate Esters and Phosphorylation Mechanisms . Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2, 48 (1974)


V.W. Armstrong, H. Sternbach, F. Eckstein: Approaches to the Affinity Labelling of E. coli DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase. FEBS Letters 44, 157 (1974)


J. Lüstorff, E. Schlimme, F. Eckstein, W. Lamprecht: Effects of Thiophosphate Analogues of ATP and ADP on the ATP-Synthetase Reaction of Oxidative Phosphorylation. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 355, 1400 (1974)


R. Wetzel, F. Eckstein: Approaches to Reactive 6-Substituted Purine Nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 40, 658 (1975)


F. Eckstein: Untersuchung von Enzymmechanismen mit Nucleosidphosphoro­thioaten. Angew. Chem. 87, 179 (1975); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 14, 160 (1975)


H.H. von Döhren, F. Eckstein: Synthese der 5'-Acetyl- und 5'-Halogenacetylderivate von Puromycin. Chem. Ber. 108, 2959 (1975)


F. Eckstein, M. Goumet, R. Wetzel: A Facile Me­thod for the Preparation of N6-Substituted ATP-Sepha­rose. Nucleic Acids Res. 2, 1771 (1975)


F. Eckstein, W. Bruns, A. Parmeggiani: Synthesis of Guanosine 5'-Di- and Triphosphate Derivatives with Modified Terminal Phosphates: Effect on Ribosome-EF-G-Dependent Reactions. Biochemistry 14, 5156 (1975)


J. Hobbs, F. Eckstein: Hydrolysis in 2'-Chloro-2'-deoxynucleosides, Nucleotides and Polynucleotides to Arabinose Derivatives. Nucleic Acids Res. 2, 1987 (1975)


V. Armstrong, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of 5-Formyl­uridine 5'-Triphosphate; an Unusual Anomerisation Reaction. Nucleic Acids Res. 1975, Suppl. 1, 97


J.K. Dattagupta, F. Eckstein, W. Saen­ger: Crystal and Molecular Structure of a-5-Formyluridine. Nucleic Acids Res. 3, 1791 (1976)


L. Thelander, B. Larsson, J. Hobbs, F. Eckstein: The Active Site of Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase from E. coli. nactivation of the Enzyme by 2'-Substituted Ribo­nucleoside Diphosphates. J. Biol. Chem 251, 1398 (1976); Methods in Enzymology 46, 321 (1977)


F. Eckstein, R.S. Goody: Synthesis and Properties of Diastereomers of Adenosine 5'-(O-1-Thiotriphosphate) and Adenosine 5'-(O-2-Thiotriphosphate). Biochemistry 15, 1685 (1976)


V. Armstrong, F. Eckstein: Affinity Labelling of E. coli DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase with a-5-Formyluridine 5'-Triphosphate. Biochemistry 15, 2086 (1976); Methods in Enzymology 46, 346 (1977)


F. Eckstein, S. Eimerl, M. Schramm: Adenosine 3',5'-Cyclic Phosphorothioate: An Efficient Inducer of Amylase Secretion in Rat Parotid Slices. FEBS Letters 64, 92 (1976)


F. Eckstein, V. Armstrong, H. Sternbach: On the Stereochemistry of Polymerization by E. coli DNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerase; An Investigation with a Diastereomeric ATP-Analogue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 2987 (1976)


J. Pimmer, E. Holler, F. Eckstein: L-Phenylalanine-tRNA Ligase of E. coli K10. The Effect of 0®S Substitution on Substrate and Ligand Binding Properties of ATP. Eur. J. Biochem. 67, 171 (1976)


T. Pfeuffer, F. Eckstein: Topology of the GTP-Binding Site of Adenylyl Cyclase from Pigeon Erythrocytes. FEBS Letters 67, 354 (1976)


V.W. Armstrong, F. Eckstein: Interaction of Substrate Analogues with E. coli DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase. Eur. J. Biochem. 70, 33 (1976)


V.W. Armstrong, H. Sternbach, F. Eckstein: Modification of an Essential Arginine in E. coli DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase. FEBS Letters 70, 48 (1976)


D. Malchow, D. Robinson, F. Eckstein: Cyclic AMP Receptors at the Surface of Aggregating Dictyo­stelium discoideum Cells. In: Surface Membrane Receptors, NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series Plenum Press, R.A. Bradshae, W.A. Frazier, R.C. Merrell, D.J. Gottlieb, R.A. Hogne-Angeletti (Eds.), Series A11, 1976, p. 437


L. Skoog, G. Bjursell, L. Thelander, T. Hägerström, J. Hobbs, F. Eckstein: 2'-Deoxy-2'-azidocytidine, a New Inhibitor of DNA Replication in Mammalian Cells. Eur. J. Biochem. 72, 371 (1977)


J.B. Hobbs, F. Eckstein: A General Method for the Synthesis of 2'-Azido-2'-deoxy- and 2'-Amino-2'-deoxyribo­furanosyl Purines. J. Org. Chem 42, 714 (1977)


H.-P. Vosberg, F. Eckstein: The Incorporation of Thiophosphate Groups into fd and FX174 DNA. Biochemistry 16, 3633 (1977)


F. Eckstein, H. Sternbach, F. von der Haar: Stereochemistry of Internucleotide Bond Formation by tRNA Nucleotidyltransferase from Baker's Yeast. Biochemistry 16, 3429 (1977)


F. Eckstein: Enzymatic Synthesis of [35S]Adenosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphos­phate). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 483, 1 (1977)


F. von der Haar, F. Cramer, F. Eckstein, K.W. Stahl: On the Stereochemistry of Activation of Phenylalanine by Phenylalanyl-tRNA Synthetase from Baker's Yeast. Eur. J. Biochem. 76, 263 (1977)


D. Malchow, V. Nanjundiak, B. Wurster, F. Eckstein, G. Gerisch: Cyclic AMP-Induced pH Changes in Dictyostelium discoideum and Their Control by Calcium. Bio­chim. Biophys. Acta 538, 473 (1978)


H. Wiedner, R. Wetzel, F. Eckstein: The Nonessential Nature of Sulfhydryls for ATPase Activity in Myosin: A Cyanylation Study. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 2763 (1978)


M. Imazawa, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxyribofuranosyl Purines. J. Org. Chem. 43, 3044 (1978)


F. Eckstein, J.C. Foreman: Actions of Adenosine and Guanosine 3',5'-Cyclic Phosphoro­thioates on Histamine Secretion. FEBS Letters 91, 182 (1978)


P. Reichard, L. Rowen, R. Eliasson, J. Hobbs, F. Eckstein:  Inhibition of Primase, The dna G Protein of E. coli by 2'-Deoxy-2'-azidocytidine Triphosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 253, 7011 (1978)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of Di­nucleo­side Monophosphorothioates via Addition of Sulphur to Phos­phite Triesters. Tetrahedron Letters 1978, 3835


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein: Absolute Configuration of Diastereomers of Adenosine 5'-O-(1-Thiotri­phosphate): Consequences for the Stereochemistry of Polymerization by DNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerase from E. coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 4798 (1978)


C. Rossier, G. Gerisch, D. Malchow, F. Eckstein: Action of a Slowly Hydrolysable cAMP Analogue on Developing Cells of Dictyostelium discoideum. J. Cell Sci. 35, 321 (1978)


H. Strothmann, S. Bickel-Sandkötter, K. Edelmann, F. Eckstein, E. Schlimme, K.S. Boos, J. Listorff: Thiophosphate Analogs of ADP and ATP as Substrates in Partial Reactions of Energy Conversion in Chloroplasts. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 545, 122 (1979)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein: Stereochemistry of Internucleotide Bond Formation by Polynucleotide Phosph­rylase from M. luteus. Biochemistry 18, 450 (1979)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein: Diastereomers of Uridyl(3'-5')adenosyl O,O-Phosphorothioate: Chemical Synthesis and Enzymatic Properties. Biochemistry 18, 592 (1979)


F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioate Analogues of Nucleo­tides. Accounts Chem. Res. 12, 204 (1979)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein: A Study of the Mechanism of DNA Polymerase I. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 6889 (1979)


M. Imazawa, F. Eckstein: A Facile Synthesis of 2'-Amino-2'-dideoxyribofuranosyl Purines. J. Org. Chem. 44, 2039 (1979)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein, D.H. Hunneman: Stereochemistry of Hydrolysis by Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 7476 (1979)


D. Yee, V.W. Armstrong, F. Eckstein: Mechanistic Stu­dies on DNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerase from   E. coli Using Phosphorothioate Analogues. 1. The Initiation and Pyrophosphate Exchange Reactions. Biochemistry 18, 4116 (1979)


V.W. Armstrong, D. Yee, F. Eckstein: Mechanistic Studies on DNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerase from   E. coli Using Phosphorothioate Analogues. 2. The Elongation Reaction. Biochemistry 18, 4120 (1979)


M. Imazawa, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of Sugar-Modified Nucleoside 5'-Triphosphate with Partially Purified Nucleotide Kinases from Calf Thymus Biochim. Biophys. Acta 570, 284 (1979)


F. Eckstein, D. Cassel, H. Levkovitz, M. Lowe, Z. Selinger: Guanosine 5'-O-(2-Thiodiphosphate): An Inhibitor of Adenylate Cyclase Stimulation by Guanine Nucleotides and Fluoride Ions. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 9829 (1979)


D. Cassel, F. Eckstein, M. Lowe, Z. Selinger: Deter­mination of the Turn-Off Reaction for the Hormone-Activa­ted Adenylate Cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 9835 (1979)


O. Barzu, F. Eckstein, S. Dancea, J. Petrescu, C. Tarmure, L.D. Ngoc, A. Hodarnau, H.H. Mantsch: Involvement of Phosphate-Modified ATP Analogs in the Reactions of Oxidative Phosphorylation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 547, 361 (1979)


V.W. Armstrong, F. Eckstein: Affinity Labelling of the 3'-OH Terminus Binding Site of the RNA Chain on DNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerase from E. coli. Biochemistry 18, 5117 (1979)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein, D.H. Hunneman, J. Ba­raniak, R.W. Kinas, K. Lesiak, W.J. Stec: Stereochemistry of Hydrolysis of Adenosine 3',5'-Cyclic Phosphorothioate by the Cyclic Phosphodiesterase from Beef Heart. J. Biol. Chem. 254, 9959 (1979)


M.J. Burgers, B.K. Sathyanarayana, W. Saenger, F. Eckstein: Structure of Adenosine 5'-O-Phosphorothioate O-p-Nitrophenyl Ester (Sp Diastereomer); Substrate Stereospecificity of Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase. Eur. J. Biochem. 100, 585 (1979)


D.J. Szalda, F. Eckstein, H. Sternbach, S.J. Lippard: Specific Heavy Metal Labeling of the 3'-Terminus of Phosphoro­thiaote Modified Yeast tRNAPhe. J. I­org. Biochem. 11, 279 (1979)


M. Svoboda, J. Furnelle, F. Eckstein, J. Christophe: Guanosine 5'-O-(2-Thiodiphosphate) as a Competitive Inhibitor of GTP in Hormone or Cholera Toxin-Stimulated Pancreatic Adenylate Cyclase. FEBS Letters 109, 275 (1980)


E. DeClerq, J. Balzarini, J. Descamps, F. Eckstein: Antiviral, Antimetabolic and Antineoplastic Ac­tivities of 2'- or 3'-Amino or Azido-Substituted Deoxyribonucleosides. Biochem. Pharm. 29, 1849 (1980)


F. Eckstein: Nucleotide Analogues for the Study of Enzyme Mechanisms Trends Biochem. Sci. 6, 157 (1980)


D. Yee, F. Eckstein: Structure of the Metal-Nucleotide Chelate in the Myosin-Product Complex. FEBS Letters 112, 10 (1980)


P.M.J. Burgers, F. Eckstein: Structure of the Metal-Nucleotide Complex in the Creatine Kinase Reac­tion . J. Biol. Chem. 255, 8229 (1980)


B.A. Connolly, F. von der Haar, F. Eckstein: Structure of the Metal-Nucleotide Complex in the Yeast Phenylalanyl tRNA Synthetase Reaction as Determined with Diastereomeric Phosphorothioate Analogs of ATP. J. Biol. Chem. 255, 11301 (1980)


D. Yee, H. Wiedner, F. Eckstein: Biphasic Steady-State Kinetics of Myosin Adenosine Triphosphatase; Evidence for a Substrate Effector Site. Eur. J. Biochem. 113, 85 (1980)


P.J. Romaniuk, F. Eckstein: Structure of the Metal-Nucleotide Complex in the Acetate Kinase Reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 7322 (1981)


R. Eliasson, E. Pontis, P. Reichard, F. Eckstein: Replication of Polyoma DNA in Nuclei Isolated from Azido­cytidine-Inhibited Fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9044 (1981)


F. Eckstein, P. Romaniuk, W. Heideman, D. Storm: Stereochemistry of the Mammalian Adenylate Cyclase Reac­tion J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9118 (1981)


B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein: Structure of the Mono- and Divalent Metal-Nucleotide Complex in the Myosin ATPase. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9450 (1981)


T.A. Kunkel, F. Eckstein, A.S. Mildvan, R.M. Koplitz, L.A. Loeb: Deoxynucleoside Thiotriphosphates Prevent Proofreading During in vitro Synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 6734 (1981)


F. Eckstein, P.J. Romaniuk, B.A. Connolly: St­reochemistry of Enzymatic Phosphoryl- and Nucleotide Transfer. Methods Enzymol. 87, 197 (1982)


H.-P. Vosberg, F. Eckstein: Effect of Deoxynucleoside Phosphorothioates Incorporated in DNA on Cleavage by Restriction Enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 6595 (1982) .


B.A. Connolly, P.J. Romaniuk, F. Eckstein: Synthesis and Characterization of Diastereomers of Guano­sine 5'-O-(1-Thiotriphosphate) and Guanosine 5'-O-(2-Thiotriph­os­phate). Biochemistry 21, 1983 (1982)


B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein, H.H. Füldner: Stereospecific Substitution of Sulfur in Nucleoside Phos­phorothio­ates by Oxygen-18. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 3382 (1982)


P.J. Romaniuk, F. Eckstein: A Study of the Mechanism of T4 DNA Polymerase with Diastereomeric Phophorothioate Analogues of Deoxyadenosine Triphosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 7684 (1982)


P.A. Bartlett, F. Eckstein: Stereochemical Course of Polymerization Catalyzed by Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Reverse Transcriptase. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 8879 (1982)


B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein: S-Methylated Nucleoside Phosphorothioates as Probes of Enzyme Metal Nucleotide Binding Sites. Biochemistry 24, 6158 (1982)


B.V.L. Potter, P.J. Romaniuk, F. Eckstein: Stereochemical Course of DNA Hydrolysis by Nuclease S1. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 1758 (1983)


T.M. Jovin, J.H. van de Sande, D.A. Zarling, D.J. Arndt-Jovin, F. Eckstein, H.H. Füldner, C. Greider, I. Grieger,  E. Hamori, B. Kalisch, L.P. McIntosh, M. Robert-Nicoud: Generation of Left-Handed Z-DNA in Solution and Visualiza­tion in Polytene Chromosomes by Immunofluorescence. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 143 (1983)


P.D. Senter, F. Eckstein, A. Mülsch, E. Böhme: Stereochemical Course of the Reaction Catalyzed by Soluble Bovine Lung Guanylate Cyclase. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 6741 (1983)


B.V.L. Potter, B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein: Synthesis and Configurational Analysis of a Dinucleo­side Phosphate Isotopically Chiral at Phosphorus; Stereochemical Course of Penicillium citrum Nuclease P1 Reac­tion Biochemistry 22, 1369 (1983)


D.I. Loewus, F. Eckstein: Symmetrical Monothiopyrophosphate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105, 3287 (1983)


B.-M. Sjöberg, A. Gräslund, F. Eckstein: A Substrate Radical Intermediate in the Reaction between Ribonucleotide Reductase from E. coli and 2'-Deoxy-2'-azidonucleoside Diphosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 258, 8060 (1983)


L.P. McIntosh, I. Grieger, F. Eckstein, D.A. Zarling, J.H. van de Sande, T.M. Jovin: Left-handed Helical Conformation of Poly[d(A-m5C)×d(G-T)]. Nature 304, 83 (1983)


F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioatanaloga von Nucleotiden; Werkzeuge zur Untersuchung biochemischer Prozesse. Angew. Chem. 95, 431 (1983); Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22, 423 (1983)


F. Eckstein, T.M. Jovin: Assignment of Resonances in the 31P NMR Spectrum of Poly[d(A-T)] from Phosphorothioate Substitution. Bio­che­mistry 22, 4546 (1983)


P.D. Senter, F. Eckstein, Y. Kagawa: Substrate Metal-ATP Chelate Structure and Stereochemical Course of the Reaction Catalyzed by the Adenosine Triphos­phatase (TF1) from the Thermophilic Bacterium PS3. Biochemistry 22, 5514 (1983)


B.V.L. Potter, F. Eckstein, B. Uznanski: A Stereospecifically 18O-Labelled Deoxydinucleoside Phos­phate Block for Incorporation into an Oligonucleotide Nucleic Acids Res. 11, 7087 (1983)


T.M. Jovin, L.P. McIntosh, D.J. Arndt-Jovin, D.A. Zar­ling, M. Robert-Nicoud, J.H. van de Sande, K.F. Jorgenson, F. Eckstein: Left-Handed DNA: From Synthetic Polymers to Chromosomes. J. Biomol. Structure and Dynamics 1, 21 (1983).


B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein, L. Grotjahn: Direct Mass Spectroscopic Method for the Determination of Oxygen Isotope Position in Adenosine 5'-O-(1-Thiotriphos­phate); Determination of the Stereochemical Course of the Yeast PhenylalanyltRNA Synthetase Reaction. Biochemistry 23, 2026 (1984)


R. Cosstick, L.W. McLaughlin, F. Eckstein: Fluores­cent Labelling of tRNA and Oligodeoxynucleotides Using T4 RNA Ligase. Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 1791 (1984)


B.A. Connolly, B.V.L. Potter, F. Eckstein, A. Pingoud, L. Grotjahn: Synthesis and Characterization of an Oc­ta­nucleotide Containing the Eco R1 Recognition Sequence with a Phosphorothioate Group at the Cleavage Site. Biochemistry 23, 3443 (1984)


B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein: Assignment of Resonances in the 31P NMR Spectrum of d(GGAATTCC) by Regiospecific Labeling with Oxygen-17. Biochemistry 23, 5523 (1984)


H.M. Miziorko, F. Eckstein: The Stereochemical Course of the Ribulose 5-Phosphate Kinase- Catalyzed Reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 13037 (1984)


B.A. Connolly, F. Eckstein, A. Pingoud: The Stereo­chemical Course of the Restriction Endonuclease Eco RI-cata­lyzed Reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 10760 (1984)


B.V.L. Potter, F. Eckstein: Cleavage of Phosphoro­thioate-Substituted DNA by Restriction Endonucleases. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14243 (1984)


J. Ott, F. Eckstein: Filter Disc Supported Oligonucleotide Synthesis by the Phosphite Method. Nucleic Acids Res. 12, 9137 (1984)


R. Iyengar, F. Eckstein, P.A. Frey: The Phosphorus-Oxygen Bond Order in Adenosine 5'-O-Phosphorothioate Bond. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 106, 8309 (1984)


F. Eckstein: Nucleoside Phosphorothioates. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 54, 367 (1985)


J. Ott, F. Eckstein: A 31P NMR Spectral Analysis of the Dodecamer d(CGCGAATTCGCG). Biochemistry 24, 2530 (1985)


R. Cosstick, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of d(GC) and d(CG) Octamers Containing Alternating Phosphorothioate Linkages. The Effect of the Phosphoro­thioate Group on the B-Z Transition. Biochemistry 24, 3630 (1985)


J. Ott, F. Eckstein, B.A. Connolly: The 31P NMR Spectrum of the Dodecamer d(GACGATATCGTC). Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 6317 (1985)


G. Yamanaka, F. Eckstein, L. Stryer: Stereochemistry of the Guanyl Nucleotide Binding Site of Transducin Probed by Phosphorothioate Analogues of GTP and GDP. Biochemistry 24, 8094 (1985)


A.L. Zimmerman, G. Yamanaka, F. Eckstein, D.A. Baylor, L. Stryer: Interaction of Hydrolysis-Resistant Analogs of Cyclic GMP with the Phosphodiesterase and Light-Se­nsi­tive Channel of Retinal Rod Outer Segments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 8813 (1985)


J. W. Taylor, W. Schmidt, R. Cosstick, A. Okruszek, F. Eckstein : The Use of Phosphorothioate-Modified DNA in Restriction Enzyme Reactions to Prepare Nicked DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8749 (1985)


J.W. Taylor, J. Ott, F. Eckstein : The Rapid Generation of Oligonucleotide-Directed Mutations at High Frequency Using Phosphorothioate-Modified DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 8765 (1985)


G. Yamanaka, F. Eckstein, L. Stryer: Interaction of Retinal Transducin with Guanosine Triphosphate Analogues; Specificity of the g-Phosphate Binding Region. Biochemistry 25, 6149 (1986)


F. Eckstein, U. Kutzke: Synthesis of Nucleoside-3',5'-Cyclic Phosphorothioates. Tetrahedron Letters 27, 1657 (1986)


F. Eckstein: Action of Restriction Endonucleases on Phosphorothioate DNA. Biochem. Soc. Transactions 14, 204 (1986)


F. Eckstein: Interaction of DNA Containing Phosphorothioate Groups with Restriction Enzymes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 471, 217 (1986)


F. Eckstein: Interaction of Restriction Endonucleases with Phosphorothio­ate-Containing DNA. In:  Mechanism of Enzymatic Reactions: Stereochemistry, P.A. Frey (Ed.), Steen­bock Symp­osium, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1986, p. 91


K.L. Nakamaye, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of Restriction Endonuclease Nci I Cleavage by Phosphorothioate Groups and its Application to Oligonucleo­tide-Directed Mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 14, 9679 (1986)


W.B.T. Cruse, S.A. Salisbury, T. Brown, R. Cosstick, F. Eckstein, O. Kennard: Phosphorothioate in a B-DNA Hexamer: The Crystal Structure of Rp-d[Gp(S)CpGp(S)CpGp(S)C]. J. Mol. Biol. 192, 891 (1986)


H. Hartmann, G. Hunsmann, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of HIV-Induced Cytopathogenicity in vitro by 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine. The Lancet, 40 (1987)


D. Lancet, Z. Chen, A. Ciobotarin, F. Eckstein, M. Khen, J. Heldman, D. Ophir, I. Shafir, U. Pace: Towards a Comprehensive Molecular Analysis of Olfactory Transduction IX. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 510, 27 (1987)


M.E. Pereira, D.L. Segaloff, M. Ascoli, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of Choriogonadotropin-Activated Steroidogenesis in Cultured Leydig Tumor Cells by the Rp-diastereoisomer of Adenosine Cyclic 3',5'-Phosphorothioate. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 6093 (1987)


J.M. Fernandez, M. Lindau, F. Eckstein: Intracellular Stimulation of Mast Cells with Guanine Nucleotides Mimics Antigenic Stimulation. FEBS Letters 216, 89 (1987)


W. Hinrichs, M. Steifa, W. Saenger, F. Eckstein: Absolute Configuration of Rp-Uridine 3',5'-Cyclic Phosphoro­thioate. Nucleic Acids Res. 15, 4945 (1987)


J. Ott, F. Eckstein: Protection of Oligonucleotide Primers against Degradation by DNA Polymerase I. Biochemistry 26, 8237 (1987)


S. Diekmann, E. von Kitzing, L. McLaughlin, J. Ott, F. Eck­stein: The Influence of Exocyclic Substituents of Purine Bases on DNA Curvature. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 8257 (1987)


J.R. Sayers, F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioate-Based Oligonucleotide-Directed Mutagenesis In: Genetic Engineering, Principles and Methods, J.K. Setlow, A. Hollaender (Eds.), Plenum Press 1988, Vol. 10, p. 109


J.R. Sayers, W. Schmidt, F. Eckstein: 5'-3' Exonucleases in Phosphorothioate-Based Oligonucleotide-Direc­ted Mutagenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 791 (1988)


J.R. Sayers, W. Schmidt, A. Wendler, F. Eckstein: Strand Specific Cleavage of Phosphorothio­ate-Containing DNA by Reaction with Restriction Endonucleases in the Presence of Ethidium Bromide. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 803 (1988)


G. Gish, F. Eckstein: DNA and RNA Sequence Determination Based on Phosphorothioate Chemistry. Science 240, 1520 (1988)


F. Eckstein: Interaction of Restriction Endonucleases with Phosphorothioate Dann. In: Enzyme Dynamics and Regulation, P.B. Chock, C.Y. Huang, C.L. Tsou, J.H. Wang (Eds.), Springer Verlag 1988, p. 200


Z.-Y. Zhang-Keck, F. Eckstein, L.D. Washington, M.R. Stallcup: A Role of Divalent Cations in Specifying the Start Site for Transcription from Chromatin Templates in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 9550 (1988)


F. Eckstein, J. Karpen, J. Critchfeld, L. Stryer: Stereochemical Course of the Reaction Catalyzed by the Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase from Retinal Outer Segments. J. Biol. Chem. 263, 14080 (1988)


H. Hartmann, M.W. Vogt, A.G. Durno, M.S. Hirsch, G. Huns­mann, F. Eckstein: Enhanced in vitro Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by 3'-Fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine Compared to Several Other Nucleoside Analogues. AIDS Research and Human Retrovirus 4, 457 (1988)


J.R. Sayers, F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioate-Based Site-Directed Mutagenesis in Protein Function, A Practical Approach, T.E. Creighton (Ed.), IRL Press 1989, p. 279


K.L. Nakamaye, G. Gish, F. Eckstein, H.-P. Vosberg: Direct Sequencing of Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplified DNA Fragments through the Incorporation of Deoxynucleoside Thiotriphos­phates. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 9947 (1988)


S. Spitzer, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of Deoxyribonucleases by Phosphorothioate Groups in Oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 16, 11691 (1988)


J. Ludwig, F. Eckstein: Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Nucleoside 5'-O-(1-Thio­triphosphates), 5'-Triphosphates and 2',3'-Cyclophosphoro­thio­ates Using 2-Chloro-4H-1,2,3-benzodioxaphosphosin-4-one. J. Org. Chem. 54, 631 (1989)


F. Eckstein, J. Gish: Phosphorothioates in Molecular Biology. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 14, 97 (1989)


R. Seifert, K. Wenzel, F. Eckstein, G. Schultz: Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides Potentiate Activation of NADPH Oxidase and Degranulation of Chemotactic Peptides and Induce Aggrega­tion of Human Neutrophils via G-Proteins. Eur. J. Biochem.181, 277 (1989)


J.R. Sayers, D.B. Olsen, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of Restriction Endonucleases by Phosphorothio­ate-Containing DNA. Nucleic Acids Res.17, 9495 (1989)


A. Karlsson, P. Reichard, F. Eckstein: Hydroxyurea Increases the Phosphorylation of 3'-Fluoro­thymidine and 3'-Azidothymidine in CEM Cells. Eur. J. Biochem., 186, 689 (1989)


D. B. Olsen, F. Eckstein: Inclomplete Primer Extension During in vitro Amplification Catalyzed by Taq Polymerase; Exploitation for DNA Sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res, 17, 9613 (1989)


D. B. Olsen, F. Eckstein: High Efficiency Oligonucleotide-Directed Plasmid Mutagenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 1451 (1990)


A. Karlsson, P. Reichard, F. Eckstein: The Metabolism of 3´-Azido-2´,3´-Dideoxyguanosine in CEM Cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 166, 273 (1990)


G. A. Garcia, F. Eckstein, A. Fersht: Structure of the Mg-ATP Complex in the Tyrosyl-tRNA Synthetase Reaction. Biochemistry, 29, 1643 (1990)


K.-W. Koch, F. Eckstein, L. Stryer: Stereochemical Course of the Reaction Catalyzed by Guanylate Cyclase from Bovine Retinal Rod Outer Segments. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 9659 (1990)


D. Patinkin, S. Seidman, F. Eckstein, F. Benseler, H.Zakut, H. Soreq: Manipulations of CHE Gene Expression Modulate Megakaryocytopoiesis. Mol. Cell Biol., 10, 6046 (1990)


H. van Tol,H.,J. M. Buzayan, P. A. Feldstein, F. Eckstein, G. Bruening: The Two Autocatalytic Processing Reactions of Satellite. Tobacco Ringspot Virus RNA Proceed with Inversion of Configuration.  Nucleic Acids Res., 18, 1971 (1990)


O. Heidenreich, M. Kruhoffer, F. Grosse, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of HIV I Reverse Transcriptase by 3`-Azidothymidine Triphosphate. Eur. J. Biochem., 192, 621 (1990)


J. R. Sayers, F. Eckstein: Properties of Overexpressed Phage T5 D15 Exonuclease; Similarities with E. coli Polymerase I 5´-3´Exonuclease. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 18311 (1990)


D. B. Olsen, G. Kotzorek, J. R. Sayers, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of the Restriction Endonuclease BanII Using Modified DNA Substrates; Determination of Phosphate Residues Critical for the Formation of an Active Enzyme-DNA Complex. J. Biol. Chem., 265, 14389 (1990)


D. B. Olsen, G. Kotzorek, F. Eckstein: Investigation of the inhibitory role of phosphorothioate internucleotidic linkages on the catalytic activity of the restriction endonuclease EcoRV. Biochemistry, 29, 9546 (1990)


J. Ludwig, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of nucleoside 5´-O-(1,3-dithiotriphosphates). J. Org. Chem., 56, 1777 (1991)


F. von zur Mühlen, F. Eckstein, R. Penner: Selective Activation of Calcium Signalling by GTPbS. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 926 (1991)


T. Ueda, H. Tohda, N. Chikazumi, F. Eckstein, K. Watanabe: Phosphorothioate-containing RNAs show mRNA activity in the prokaryotic translation systems. Nucleic Acids Res., 19, 547 (1991)


D. M. Williams, F. Benseler, F. Eckstein: Properties of 2´-Deoxy-2´-Fluorothymidine containing Oligonucleotides; Interaction with the Restriction Endonuclease EcoRV. Biochemistry, 30, 4001 (1991)


J.Sayers, F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioate-Based Mutagenesis for Sinlge Stranded Vectors in Mutagenesis, A Practical Approach, M. McPherson (Ed.), IRL Press (Oxford) 1991,49


D. B. Olsen, F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioate-Based Double-Stranded Plasmid Mutagenesis in Mutagenesis, A Practical Approach, M. McPherson (Ed.), IRL Press (Oxford) 1991,83


W. A. Pieken, D. B. Olsen, F. Benseler, H. Aurup, F. Eckstein: Kinetic Characterisation of Ribonuclease-Resistant 2´-Modified Hammerhead Ribozymes. Science, 253, 314 (1991)


D. Schatz, R. Leberman, F. Eckstein: Interaction of E. coli tRNASer with its Cognate Synthetase as Determined by Footprinting with Phosphorothioate-Containing tRNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 6132 (1991)


J. R. Sayers, F. Eckstein: A Single-Strand Specific Endonuclease Activity Copurifies with Overexpressed T5 D15 Exonuclease. Nucleic Acids Res., 19, 4127 (1991)


D. B. Olsen, H. Aurup, F. Benseler, W. Pieken, F. Eckstein: Study of a Hammerhead Ribozyme Containing 2´-Modified Adenosine Residues. Biochemistry, 30, 9735 (1991)


J. Ludwig, F. Eckstein: Stereospecific Synthesis of Guanosine 5´-O-(1,2-dithiotriphosphates. J. Org. Chem., 56, 5860 (1991)


Y. Lapidot-Lifson, D. Patinkin, C. A. Prody, G. Ehrlich, S. Seidman, R. Ben-Aziz, F. Eckstein, F. Benseler, H. Zakut, H. Soreq: CHED, a human cdc2 homologue essential for megakaryocyte formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 579 (1992)


D. M. Williams, W. A. Pieken, F. Eckstein: Function of specific 2´-hydroxyl groups of guanosines in a hammerhead ribozyme probed by 2´-modifications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 918 (1992)


O. Heidenreich, F. Eckstein: Hammerhead Ribozyme-Mediated Cleavage of the Long Terminal Repeat RNA oh Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. J. Biol. Chem., 267, 1904 (1992)


S. Paris, F. Eckstein: Activation of G proteins by Rp and Sp diastereomers of guanosine-[ß-thio]triphosphate in hamster fibroblasts. Biochem. J., 284, 327 (1992)


Hertel, K. J., Pardi, A., Uhlenbeck, O. C., Koizumi, M., Ohtsuka, E., Uesugi, S., Cedergren, R., Eckstein, F., Gerlach, W. L., Hodgson, R., Symons, R. H.: Numbering System for the Hammerhead. Nucleic Acids Res., 20, 3252 (1992)


J. Rudinger, J. D. Puglisi, J. Pütz, D. Schatz, F. Eckstein, C. Florentz, R. Giegé: Determinant nucleotides of Yeast tRNAasp interact directly with Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 5882 (1992)


J. R. Sayers, C. Krekel, F. Eckstein: Rapid High Efficiency Site-Directed Mutagenesis by the Phosphorothioate Approach. BioTechniques, 13, 592 (1992)


F. Benseler, D. M Williams, F. Eckstein: Synthesis of suitably-protected phosphoramidites of 2´-fluoro-2´-deoxyguanosine and 2´-amino-2´-deoxyguanosine for incorporation into oligoribonu­cleotides. Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 11, 1333 (1992)


H. Aurup, D. M. Williams, F. Eckstein: 2´-Fluoro- and 2´-amino-2´-deoxy 5´-triphosphates as substrates for T7 RNA polymerase. Biochemistry, 31, 9636 (1992)


K. Bebenek, F. Eckstein, T. A. Kunkel: The effects of 3´-Deoxythymidine Metabolites on SV40 Origin-Dependent Replication and Heteroduplex Repair in HeLa Cell Extracts. Mol. Pharmacol., 43, 57 (1993)


O. Heidenreich, W. Pieken, F. Eckstein: Chemically modified RNA: Approaches and applications. FASEB Journal 7, 90 (1993)


D. B. Olsen, G. Wunderlich, A. Uy, F. Eckstein: Direct Sequencing of Polymerase Chain Reaction Products. Methods in Enzymology, 218, 79 (1993)


D. B. Olsen, J. R. Sayers, F. Eckstein: Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Single- and Double-Stranded DNA by the Phosphorothioate Approach. Methods in Enzymology, 217, 189 (1993)


T. Ceska, J. Sayers, F. Eckstein, D. Suck: Preliminary Crystallographic studies on the D15 5´-3´exonuclease from phage T5. J. Mol. Biol., 233, 179 (1993)


D. Herschlag, F. Eckstein, T. R. Cech: Contributions of 2´-Hydroxyl Groups of the RNA Substrate to Binding and Catalysis by the Tetrahymena Ribozyme. An Energetic Picture of the Active Site. Biochemistry, 32, 8299 (1993)


D. Herschlag, F. Eckstein, T. R. Cech: Evidence for Inductive Effects in the Tetrahymena Ribozyme Reaction. A Partial Model for Transition State Interactions. Biochemistry, 32, 8312 (1993)


T. Tuschl, F. Eckstein: Hammerhead Ribozymes: Importance of stem-loop II for activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90, 6991 (1993)


T. Tuschl, M. M. P. Ng, W. Pieken, F. Benseler, F. Eckstein: Importance of exocyclic base functional groups of central core guanosines for hammerhead ribozyme activity. Biochemistry, 32, 11658 (1993)


J. Thomson, T. Tuschl, F. Eckstein: Activity of hammerhead ribozymes containing non-nucleotidic linkers. Nucleic Acids Res., 21, 5600 (1993)


O. Heidenreich, F. Benseler, A. Fahrenholz, F. Eckstein: Influence of 2´-modified uridines and phosphorothioates on the activity and stability of hammerhead ribozymes. J. Biol. Chem., 269, 2131 (1994)


K. L. Nakamaye, F. Eckstein: AUA-Cleaving hammerhead ribozymes: Attempted selection for improved cleavage. Biochemistry, 33, 1271 (1994)


H. Aurup, T. Tuschl, F. Benseler, J. Ludwig, F. Eckstein: Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 2´-amino-2´-deoxycytidines: Thermal stability and chemical reactivity. Nucleic Acids Res.,22, 20 (1994)


E. Lev-Lehman, D. Ginzberg, G. Hornreich, G. Ehrlich, A. Meshover, F. Eckstein, H. Soreq, H. Zakut: Antisense inhibiton of acetylcholinesterase gene expression causes transient hematopoietic alterations in vivo Gene Therapy, 1, 127 (1994)


H. Soreq, D. Patinkin, E. Lev-Lehman, D. Ginzberg, F. Eckstein, H. Zakut: Antisense acetyl­cholinesterase inhibition circumvents hematopoietic apoptosis ex vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91, 7907 (1994)


M. M. P. Ng, F. Benseler, T. Tuschl, F. Eckstein: Isoguanosine substitution of conserved adenosines in the hammerhead ribozyme. Biochemistry, 33, 12119 (1994)


G. Ehrlich, D. Patinkin, D. Ginzberg, H. Zakut, F. Eckstein, H. Soreq: Use of partially phos­phorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for modulation of hemopoiesis in culture. Antisense Research & Development, 4, 173 (1994)


P. Marschall, J. B. Thomson, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of gene expression with ribozymes. Cell. Mol. Neurobiology, 14, 523 (1994)


D. Patinkin, E. Lev-Lehman, H. Zakut, F. Eckstein, H. Soreq: Antisense inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase gene expression predicts adverse hematopoietic consequences to cholinesterase inhibitors. Cell. Mol. Neurobiology, 14, 459 (1994)


R. Eliasson, E. Pontis, F. Eckstein, P. Reichard: Interactions of 2´-azido- and haloanalogs of deoxycytidine 5´-triphosphate with the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of E. coli. J. Biol. Chem., 269, 26116 (1994)


T. Tuschl, C. Gohlke, T. M. Jovin, E. Westhof, F. Eckstein: A three-dimensional model for the hammerhead ribozyme based on fluorescence measurements. Science, 266, 785 (1994)


H. Aurup, A. Siebert, F. Benseler, D. Williams, F. Eckstein: Translation of 2´-modified mRNA in vitro and in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res., 22, 4963 (1994)


H. Aurup, O. Heidenreich, F. Eckstein: Stabilized RNA analogues for antisense and ribozyme applications in Delivery Strategies for Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapeutics, ed. S. Akhtar, CRC Press, 161-176, 1995


T. Tuschl, J. B. Thomson, F. Eckstein: RNA Cleavage by small catalytic RNAs. Curr. Opin. Structural Biol., 5, 296 (1995).


F. Eckstein, O. Heidenreich, M. Ng, T. Tuschl: Oligonucleotides in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Ed. R. A. Meyers, VCH Publishers, 621-624, 1995.


F. Eckstein, J. B. Thomson: Phosphate analogues for the study of DNA polymerases. Methods in Enzymology, 262, 188 (1995)


O. Heidenreich, S.- H. Kang, D. A. Brown, X. Xu, P. Swiderski, J. J. Rossi, F. Eckstein, M. Nerenberg: Ribozyme-mediated RNA degradation in nuclei suspension. Nucleic Acids Res., 23, 2223 (1995)


S. T. Sigurdsson, F. Eckstein: Structure-function relationship of Hammerhead ribozymes: From understanding to application. Trends in Biotechnology, 13, 286 (1995)


S. T. Sigurdsson, T. Tuschl, F. Eckstein: Probing RNA tertiary structure: Interhelical crosslinking of the hammerhead ribozyme. RNA, 1, 575 (1995)


G. Behravan, S. Sen, U. Rova, L. Thelander, F. Eckstein, A. Gräslund: Formation of a free radical of the sulfenyimine type in the mouse ribonucleotide reductase reaction with 2´-azido-2´-deoxycytidine 5´-diphosphate. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1264, 323 (1995)


F. Eckstein, O. Heidenreich, M. Ng, T. Tuschl: Oligonucleotides in Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine, Ed. R. A. Meyers, VCH Publishers, 281-286, 1996.


P. A. Heaton, F. Eckstein: Diastereomeric specificity of 2´, 3´-cyclic nucleotide 3´-phosphodiesterase. Nucleic Acids Res., 24, 850-853 (1996)


S. Th. Sigurdsson, F. Eckstein: Isolation of oligoribonucleotides containing intramolecular cross-links. Anal. Biochem., 235, 241-242 (1996)


J. B. Thomson, B. K. Patel, V. Jimenez, K. Eckart, F. Eckstein: Synthesis and properties of diuridine phosphate analogues containing thio- and amino- modifications. J. Org. Chem., 61, 6273-6281 (1996)


S. T. Sigurdsson, F. Eckstein: Facile synthesis of isocyanates. J. Org. Chem.,61, 3883-3884 (1996)


J. B. Thomson, T. Tuschl, F. Eckstein: The Hammerhead Ribozyme in: Nucleic Acids & Moleculy Biology (F. Eckstein, D. Lilliey, ed) Springer Verlag Heidelberg, Vol. 10,173-196 (1996)


S. T. Sigurdsson, F. Eckstein: Site-specific labeling of sugar residues in oligoribonucleotides: reactions of aliphatic isocyanates with 2´-amino groups. Nucleic Acids Res., 24, 3129-3133 (1996)


S. T. Sigurdsson, T. Tuschl, F. Eckstein: Probing the tertiary structure of the hammerhead ribozyme using spectroscopy and interhelical croslinking, in: Biological Structure and Dynamics R. H. Sarma and M. H. Sarma, eds.), Adenine Press, 2, 057-060 (1996)


J. Thomson, S. Sigurdsson, A. Zeuch, F. Eckstein: In vitro selection of hammerhead ribozymes containing a bulged nucleotide in stem II. Nucleic Acids Res., 24, 4401-4406 (1996)


M. Menger, T. Tuschl. F. Eckstein, D. Pörschke: Mg2+-dependent conformational changes in the hammerhead ribozyme. Biochemistry, 35, 14710-14716 (1996)


F. Eckstein: A new era in drug development; novel approaches in therapeutics by antisense technologies. Science Spectra, (1996), 56-61


K. R. Birikh, Y. A. Berlin, H. Soreq, F. Eckstein: Probing accessible sites for ribozymes on human acetylcholinesterase RNA. RNA, 3, 429-437 (1997)


R. Hormes, M. Homann, I. Oelze, P. Marschall, M. Tabler, F. Eckstein, G. Sczakiel: The Subcellular localization and length of hammerhead ribozymes determine efficacy in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res., 25, 769-775 (1997)


K. Birikh, P. Heaton, F. Eckstein: The hammerhead ribozyme: Structure, Function and application. Eur. J. Biochem., 245, 1-16 (1997)


B. Patel, F. Eckstein: 5´-Deoxy-5´-thioribonucleoside-5´-triphosphates. Tetrahedron Letters, 38, 1021-1024 (1997)


B. Bramlage, F. Eckstein: Das Hammerhead Ribozym zur Inhibition der Genexpression. BIOforum 20, 134-137 (1997)


N. K. Vaish, P. A. Heaton, F. Eckstein: In vitro selection of hammerhead ribozymes with alttered core sequences . Biochemistry 36, 6495-6501 (1997)


Y. Huang, F. Eckstein, R. Padilla, R. Sousa: The mechanism of substrate discrimination by an RNA polymerase. Biochemistry, 36, 8231-8242 (1997)


L. Marusic, G. Barsacchi, E. Luzi, F. Eckstein: Intermolecular cleavage by the newt ribozyme. Eur. J. Biochem.247, 396-401 (1997)


F. Eckstein: Exogenous application of ribozymes for inhibiting gene expression. Ciba Foundation Symposium 209, Oligonucleotides as Therapeutic Agents,207-217 (1997)


O. Heidenreich, F. Eckstein: Ribozyme in der molekularen Medizin, in: Handbuch der Molekularen Medizin/Molekular-und Zellbiologische Grundlagen (Ganten/Ruckpaul, Hrsg.) Springer Verlag Heidelberg 1997, 242-265.


O. Heidenreich, F. Eckstein: Synthetic Ribozymes: The hammerhead ribozyme, in: Concepts in Gene Therapy (M. Strauss, J. A. Barranger, ed.) Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1997, pp. 167-193


M. Grifman, E. Lev-Lehman, D. Ginzberg, F. Eckstein, H. Zakut, H. Soreq: Potential antisense oligonucleotide therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, in: Concepts in Gene Therapy (M. Strauss, J. A. Barranger, ed.) Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1997, pp. 139-165


E. Luzzi, F. Eckstein, G. Barsacchi: The newt ribozyme is part of a riboprotein complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9711-9716 (1997)


T. Persson, C. S. Vörtler, O. Fedorova, F. Eckstein: Incorporation of 2´-modified nucleotides into tRNA to test importance for charging. Nucleosides & Nucleotides 16, 797-800 (1997)


D. J. Earnshaw, B. Masquida, S. Müller, S. Th. Sigurdsson, F. Eckstein, E. Westhof, M. Gait: Inter-domain cross-linking and molecular modeling of the hairpin ribozyme. J. Mol. Biol.274,197-212 (1997)


S. Verma, N. K. Vaish, F. Eckstein: Structure-Function studies of the hammerhead ribozyme. Curr. Opinion Chem. Biol. 1, 532-536 (1997)


S. Verma, F. Eckstein: Oligonucleotides: Synthesis and usages. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 67, 99-134 (1998)


S. Th. Sigurdsson, J. B. Thomson, F. Eckstein: Small Ribozymes, in: RNA Structure and Function (R. W. Simons, M. Grunberg-Manago, ed.) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1998, pp 339-376


F. Eckstein: Searching for the ideal partner. Nature Biotech. 16, 24 (1998)


N. K. Vaish, P. A. Heaton, F. Eckstein: In vitro selection of a purine nucleotide specific hammerhead-like ribozyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 2158-2162 (1998)


B. Bramlage, E. Luzi, F. Eckstein : Designing ribozymes for the inhibition of gene expression. TIBTECH 16, 434-438 (1998)


S. Alefelder, B. Patel, F. Eckstein: Incorporation of terminal phosphorothioates into oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 4983-4988 (1998)


S. Vörtler, O. Fedorova, T. Persson, U. Kutzke, F. Eckstein: Determination of 2´-hydroxyl and phosphate groups important for aminoacylation of E. coli tRNAAsp by the cognate synthetase RNA 4, 1444-1454 (1998)


A. R. Kore, N. K. Vaish, F. Eckstein: Sequence specificity of the hammerhead ribozyme revisited; the NHH rule. Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 4983-4988 (1998)


N. K. Vaish, A. K. Kore, F. Eckstein: Recent developments in the hammerhead ribozyme field. Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 5237-5242 (1998)


S. Verma, N. Vaish, F. Eckstein: Ribonucleotide analogues and their applications in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry Vol. 6 “Prebiotic Chemistry, Molecular Fossils, Nucleosides and RNA” ed. D. Söll and S. Nishimura; publisher Elsevier, pg. 217-233 (1999)


L. Citti, F. Eckstein, B. Capecchi, L. Mariani, S. Nevischi, A. Pogi, G. Rainaldi: Transient transfection of a synthetic hammerhead ribozyme targeted against human MGMT gene to cells in culture potentiates the genotoxicity of the alkylation damage induced by mitozolomide. Antisense & Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 9, 125-133 (1999)


S. Seidman, F. Eckstein, M. Grifman, H. Soreq: Antisense Technologies for combating neurodegenerative diseases. Antisense & Nucleic Acid Drug Devel. 9, 333-340 (1999)


D. Grisaru, E. Lev-Lehman, M. Shapira, E. Chaikin, J. B. Lessing, A. Eldor, F. Eckstein, H. Soreq: Human osteogenesis involves differentiation-dependent increases in the morphogenically active 3´alternative splicing variant of acetylcholinesterase. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19, 788-795 (1999)


C. Carola, F. Eckstein: Nucleic Acid Enzymes. Curr. Opinion Chem. Biol. 3, 274-283 (1999)


B. Bramlage, S. Alefelder, P. Marschall, F. Eckstein: Inhibition of luciferase expression by synthetic hammerhead ribozymes and their cellular uptake. Nucleic Acid Res. 27, 3159-3167 (1999)


A. Kore, F. Eckstein: Hammerhead ribozyme mechanism: A ribonucleotide 5´ to the substrate cleavage site is not essential. Biochemistry 38, 10915-10918 (1999)


Kiessling, DeGrado, W. F. and Eckstein, F.: Biopolymers: Modulation of nucleic acids, carbohydrates and proteins to different tasks. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 3, 641-642 (1999)


S. Vörtler, F. Eckstein: Phosphorothioate modification of RNA for stereochemical and interference analyses. Methods Enzymology 317, 74-91 (2000).


M. Menger, F. Eckstein, D. Pörschke: Dynamics of the RNA hairpin GNRA tetraloop. Biochemistry 39, 4500-4507 (2000).


Mariani, L., Citti, L., Nevischi, S., Eckstein, F. Rainaldi, G.: Ribozyme and free alkylated nucleobase: a dual approach for sensitizing Mex+ cells to the alkylating antineoplastic drug. Cancer Gene Therapy 7, 905-909 (2000).


Kore, A., Carola, C. and Eckstein, F.: Attempts to obtain more efficient GAC-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes by in vitro selection. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 8, 1767-1771 (2000).


Eckstein, F.: Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides: What is their origin and what is special about them? Antisense & Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 10, 117-121 (2000).


Kore, A., Vaish, N., Morris, J., Eckstein, F.: In vitro Evolution of the hammerhead ribozyme to a purine-specific ribozyme using mutagenic PCR with two nucleotide analogues. J. Mol. Biol. 301, 1113-1121 (2000).


Müller, M.O., Meylan-Bettex, M., Eckstein, F., Martinoia, E., Siegenthaler, P. A., Bovett, L.: Lipid phosphorylation in chloroplast envelopes. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19475-10481 (2000).


Menger, M., Eckstein, F., Pörschke, D.: Multiple conformational states of the hammerhead ribozyme, broad time range of relaxation and topology of dynamics. Nucleic Acids Res. 28, 4428-4434 (2000)


Bramlage, B., Luzi, E., Eckstein, F.: HIV-1-LTR as target for synthetic ribozyme-mediated inhibition of gene expression; site selection and inhibition in cell culture. Nucleic Acids Res. 28, 4059-4067 (2000)


Eckstein, F., Bramlage, B.: The Hammerhead Ribozyme. Biopolymers 52, 147-154 (2001/1999)


Galyam, N., Grisaru, D., Grifman, M., Melamed-Book, N. Eckstein, F., Eldor, A., Soreq, H.: Complex host cell response to antisense suppression of AChE gene expression. Antisense & Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 11, 51-57 (2001)


Eckstein, F., Kore, A. R., Nakamaye, K. L.: In vitro selection of hammerhead ribozyme sequence variants. ChemBioChem 2, 629-635 (2001)


Eckstein, F.: DNA-based molecular construction. transkript 8, 40 (2002)


Persson, T., Hartmann, R. K., Eckstein, F.: Hammerhead ribozyme variants with low Mg2+ requirement; importance of stem-loop II. ChemBioChem 3, 1066-1071 (2002)


Eckstein, F.: Developments in RNA chemistry, a personal view. Biochimie 84, 841-848 (2002)


Eckstein, F., Kahne, D., Degrado, W. F.: Multifaceted biopolymers, Editorial Overview. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6, 805-808 (2002)


Rossi, J. Eckstein, F.: RNAi Impacts the World of Antisense. Oligonucleotides 13, 279-280 (2003)


Eckstein, F.: The antisense methodology, an assessment after 25 years. In Nucleic Acid Therapeutics in Cancer (ed. A. Gewirtz), Humana Press, pg.3-13, (2004)


Engels, J. W., Eckstein, F.: Antisense Oligonucleotides as Potential Drugs. In Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine (ed. R. A. Meyers) Wiley-VCH, pg.403-414 (2004)


Eckstein, F.: Small non-coding RNAs as magic bullets. Trends Biochem. Sciences 30 (2005) 445-452


Eckstein, F. The versatility of oligonucleotides as potential therapeutics. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 7,1021-1034 (2007)


Eckstein, F. Phosphorothioation of DNA in bacteria. News and Views. Nature Chem. Biol. 3, 689-690 (2007).


Eckstein, F. Preface. Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Fourth Annual Meeting. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1175: 1-2  (2009)


Begemann, M. et al., 31 authors, one Eckstein, F. Modification of Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenia by Complexin 2 Gene Polymorphisms Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 67: 879-888 (2010)


Eckstein, F. Phosphorothioates, essential components of therapeutic oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Ther. 24: 374-387 (2014)

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